Think Tank Stresses Importance of Information Sharing in Research and Teaching
Tim Berners-Lee: Machine-readable Web still a ways off
All of the links this week really get at the heart of a widespread need for interoperability, extensibility, and some standards for machine readable contextuality.
I find it both really fascinating and totally counterintertuitive that standards (when used properly) promote the creative (and unpredictable) expansion of the net, as they allow interoperability, sharing, and reduce the duplication of effort. I don't think that most people understand the degree to which they provide the substrate for the network to communicate. Because the network is so distributed and largely uncontrolled, it provides the power to aggregate across systems. That is, however, the problem as well.
However, in the history of solutions in this arena, from html to packet switching to email, you see a pattern of innovation that is both simple, efficient and elegant. The need for semantic structure in the web is building, across institutions and across disciplines, and I'm willing to bet that we'll see a solution start to take hold in the next few years. The pressure is building, and the dam will break. As such, I would argue that we are in one of those important historical moments where change is about to form itself before our eyes.
Since I've had too much coffee and not enough procrastination, I'd like to indulge in theorizing about what innovation matrix may come out to solve this problem. I say matrix because it's such a complex systems and sociological problem. I don't think any one technology or innovation is going to get us from here to wholesale adoption of something like the RDF.
There are, however, some assumptions to predicting evolution. We have to assume that the nature of the system won't radically change, and that the assumptions that have given rise to the current system are not fundamentally flawed.
That being said, there are regularities to technological change. The innovation has to be simple enough to be distributed and elegant enough to be adopted. It has to be something that's obvious from the technology in hindsight. I see the following principles implicated:
- It has to be a simple step from the current technology to the innovation. For example, twitter is an obvious innovation if you look at blogging culture, sms culture and and the adoption of mobile web applications into everyday life. It's an extensible platform that can be run on the most basic of web enabled phones, allowing blogging impulses to happen away from the desk and without the strange and tiered costs of sms.
- It has to be based on obvious and available reconfiguration of current technologies, but remixed in a way that isn't inherently obvious, or it would have been done already. In other words, it needs to take advantage of the current strengths of the system. It's not going to be something built in a free standing vacuum to address this problem.
- There needs to be either a low barrier or a high incentive for adoption. In other words, it has to be either easy or rewarding, which is a complex sociological calculation in itself. Regardless of the complexity of estimating this variable, there is a strong underlying argument for ease and simplicity within this factor. Basically, it needs to be cheap to adopt.
- There is also a strong argument for a multifaceted rewards system. In other words, it needs to maximize the number of groups and possible ways that it can benefit the system. If it only benefits a small group, it probably won't be adopted, regardless of the size of the benefit. In order to get a large enough net benefit, we might need to aim for a solution that yields a smaller benefit to a larger number of users.
- It needs to be injected into a place where it can take root in a sizeable portion of the population of online documents. It doesn't matter how simple, elegant or functional it is if no one is using it. One word for this problem: Betamax. Size matters when it comes to adoption and market share. The most successful path for the retroactive injection of structure system is probably at the lowest attainable level.
- Centralization is tenuous in an online environment, the only examples that work are ones that are highly open and interoperable such that the content can move fluidly between systems, or where demand is high.
- There is a strong generalized need for semantic structure for the web, but virtually no focused demand, because of a positivistic myopia. The deficiency of the system isn't immediately visible even the most proficient users. They don't know what the searches aren't returning to them. We are trained to optimize our thinking within the current structure. It's a nebulous problem without clear solutions or villains. That's what makes it an interesting problem to watch, because it means that the crystalization of the solution will be somewhat unpredictable, but when it does crystalize it will precipitate a whole new iteration.
- The solution must be extensible. The system is a moving target, and must either grow with or shed existing structures. Any successful solution must provide for both the present and the future. We must be able to add in things to it in the future that we cannot conceive of now, because of the nature of system.
Because of these factores, I don't think a centralized repository of metadata (semantic) information is feasible. The distributed, layperson-oriented and uncontrolled nature of the internet precludes a number of avenues of innovation.
However, I think the solutions will look mundane and yet powerful. Below are som that might pass through most of these limiting factors.
1. Embedding more semantic/metadata information within the hyperlinking html definition.
Why this would work:
- Low level structural injection of metadata information into the design of webpages in a very simple way.
- Can be highly distributed. No one central agent is responsible, but any given agent can have a significant impact.
- Can be automated across many types of systems and document types.
- The current internet indexing (search engine) paradigm is largely built upon the linking network of pages. If we improve the semantic information embedded within those links, the search engines can easily use their existing infrastructure to provide significant improvements.
- Since linking has proven to be so important to the nature of the web, there is no reason not to push for this structural improvement, regardless of what the final solution is.
- There is already the seed of this idea, insofar as the LINK tag can be used to provide more information as to the nature of the html documents. It's just not structured. See http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/links.html#h-12.3.3
It would only begin to address the problems of non-html documents on the web. In the end, the metadata really needs to be emdedded in the document such that if you have the document you have the metadata.
2. Creating a standardized file wrapper that embeds the metadata. Just like the embedded metadata of mp3s, and the wrapping of digital video files to encompass multiple encoding types within a single file type. These two solutions could be extended to the entire world of online files.
This would require a bunch of details to be successful:
- The standards would need a library of definitions hosted centrally, just like for document type definitions within html/xhtml. This is so that they can be extensible, grow over time, and embed only the minimal amount of information in the file itself.
- The metadata should also include document versioning information. There is such a need for embedded versioning information that this alone could drive adoption rates. Imagine if every document you emailed for review could have an edit time date/stamps with every user included, regardless of which platform you or they used. The technology is simple and at our fingertips, think of it as email headers for web files. Semantic file management problems are not restricted to the internet. We need the next generation of embedded file information in a global way.
- The wrapper would need to be based on a simple open architecture, such as xml.
- The wrapper would require broad spectrum buy in from the software and gadget community. It would need to be designed by and supported by software manufacturers such that it could be automatically generated when saving the file. If Microsoft and Adobe supported this endeavour, I believe that virtually all filemakers would follow suit. It's not inconceivable to think that they would do this, and do this openly, given the history of the development of the pdf and the ms office document types. Google, microsoft, and yahoo all have a great deal to gain having a voice at the table with regards to increased semantic structure of documents.
- Support would need to be such that users could save, and modify the wrapper information on a variety of platforms and applications, preferably on the fly without actually opening the document. Browers could be adapted such that the wrapper information is optionally editable upon download of a file, (just like the filename and download location). Browsers could then also take contextual information from the website to pre-populate fields. Just as citation management software can recognize citations, browser and application plugins could be written to read and populate metadata fields on the fly while saving documents.
- There could be scripts written to automate the wrapping of current document repositories on a large scale. Arguments could be made for publishers to do this so that their files can be tracked for copyright purposes.
And I'm sure this hypothesizing shows my gaps of knowledge as much as anything. But you have to admit that it's an intriguing issue to think about, regardless of how things fall out. And while this may not be the solution that takes hold, it is likely that it will be something in this vein.